How much do you know about car insurance in Australia? If you are like most drivers, you are acutely aware that you are required to have compulsory third-party cover in order to register your vehicle. That may be the extent of your knowledge. As an industry leader in fast and secure car insurance quotes, we get a lot of questions from customers looking to understand what it is they are purchasing.

From our experience, the two most frequently asked car insurance questions are:

  • How are insurance premiums calculated?
  • How can I save money on voluntary car insurance?

We will seek to answer both questions in this post. However, our answers are by no means exhaustive. Car insurance is a very personal thing that is largely based on individual circumstances. It would help to learn as much as you can about car insurance law to ensure you adequately protect yourself as a driver and car owner.

How Are Insurance Premiums Calculated?

The concept of insurance is pretty uniform no matter where you purchase it or what it covers. When you buy a policy, you are paying the insurance company a certain amount of money in exchange for protecting you against significant financial loss in the event of a claim. The insurance company is willing to take the risk because they can use the money you pay in premiums to invest. The idea is to make a profit from those investments that far outpaces whatever the company pays out in annual claims.

With this understanding, it should be clear that insurance premiums are calculated based on the amount of risk the driver poses to the insurance company. The greater the risk, the higher the premiums. Insurance companies employ an army of actuaries who use statistical data to determine how much risk a driver poses. They look at a number of things, including:

  • the age and sex of the driver
  • individual driving history
  • the make, model and year of the car
  • where the car is parked at night
  • any modifications or improvements made to the car
  • how the car is primarily used (e.g., commuting to work, pleasure, or business).

All of the factors are combined to create a mathematical score representing risk. That score determines what you will pay in premiums.

How Can I Save Money on Voluntary Car Insurance?

You can't really save significant money on green slip insurance because it is mandatory and does not rely as much on the above factors. But there are things you can do to reduce what you pay for voluntary cover like comprehensive and third party fire and theft. The most important thing is to maintain a clean driving record – meaning you are avoiding accidents and violations. Understand that your driving history is the single most important factor to influence your premiums.

You can also save money by:

  • parking your car in a safe and secure place at night
  • equipping your car with safety and anti-theft equipment
  • limiting the number of additional drivers you nominate on your policy
  • choosing market value instead of agreed value
  • accepting a higher excess
  • taking a driver safety course.

You should also consider asking your car insurance company about discounts when you renew. Discounts are tools used by providers to encourage new customers to purchase from them. The thing is, most people are eligible for discounts they are unaware of. Ask about any and all discounts you are entitled to. There is no point in paying more than you have to.

Every travel photographer knows that the world is a wonderful place, of mountains, deserts, forests and lands. The problem is how to picture them with the travellers eye. Landscape is one of the great classic themes of photography, and for the whole of its history it has been married to travel photography. Nineteenth century pioneers such as John Thompson and Timothy O’Sullivan set out to show those at home what distant and unknown places looked like.

Landscape photography still contains an element of discovery, but as often as not it is a personal discovery. It is a human invention, and is the visual artist’s way of interpreting geography as an image.

When the writer Virginia Woolf was in Italy attempting to convey a sense of place, she concluded, "What one really records is the state of one’s mind." In other words, when trying to capture a scene, keep it personal and try to show what appeals to you rather than slavishly follow the accepted “ideal” viewpoints and subjects. There is no such thing as a single, perfect view, only views that have, through laziness, simply become accepted as the obvious.

Wide-angle or telephoto

Most landscapes are broad views of a place, and for the camera they tend to group them- selves into one of two camps: wide-angle and tele-photo. These two treatments both feel different and call for different technique and vision. Wide-angle landscapes are excellent at showing the full sweep of a large view, including the sky (which therefore needs to have some interest in it for the image to work at its best).

They are also capable of expanding the sense of depth in a scene by including a strong foreground — what Ansel Adams referred to as a “near-far" approach. For this, finding the exact view- point is important, one that pitches a close element, such as sunflowers in a Tuscan field or pebbles on a beach, with a distant element that is also strong.

St Derma - Genuine High Quality Skin Care Products

St Derma Pty Ltd is a skincare company that is determined to bring genuine high quality life products to people, through our continued pursuit of excellences. With international market in mind, we are sourcing most of our ingredients locally in Australia to showcase the best of our nature from down-under.

It is the rich soil, clean water and nourishing sunshine that make our ingredients grow and the power of nature that makes them so effective. We also need to be mindful of the resources we use, and minimise our impact on the earth.Our aim is to innovate and offer genuine high quality Australian products to the world.

While many cosmetic companies and sales representatives many tell you that their products can go deep into skin. Have you ever asked how deep? As human body cells are layered, anything that being put on your skin will be absorbed mostly into the first layer, which is called Epidermis. It is the first layer which our naked eyes could see and our hands could touch and feel. Very little would be going into the second layer called Dermis. Your doctor, dermatologist or plastic surgeons would tell you that only needle injection could do most effectively on Dermis and deeper into your body.

Why Nano-particle is an argument?

A while ago, an independent research has discovered that many multi-national cosmetic companies have nano-particles in their cosmetics and sunscreens products. It is still unclear at current stage, but the long term exposure could cause lung damage, cell toxicity, damage DNA and possibly even harm unborn children. Our cosmetic products do not contain penetration enhancers and do not contain Nano-particle, so that we would take your worry out when choosing our products. We are also in the process of developing a nano-particle free sunscreen with another laboratory, to add UV protection onto our product range.

Pregnancy safe

To our knowledge there is no risk associated with the use of/contact with any of the ingredients we use within our products during pregnancy. Should you come across any conflicting information regarding one of our products or the ingredients that you believe we should know about please feel free to email us. While we want to give you all the facts about topics such as this, we don't intend for our advice to replace that of your qualified medical practitioner. Should you want more guidance on the matter, contact your local GP, Obstetrician or Dermatologist for more information.

No Animal testing

None of our products are animal tested and we are also against animal testing.

The truth about Preservatives

Preservatives are used to prevent cosmetics from spoiling, without them you would most likely have to store your favourite products in the fridge and that would limit the usage and convenience. Preservatives are what keep tiny micro-organisms such as bacteria and mould from contaminating your products, even when you dip your finger into the bottle.

When a product becomes contaminated not only does it lose its effective properties, but it can also cause reactions in your skin that you haven't previously experienced. So by stability test and using minimal amounts of preservatives, we can ensure that your products will stay preserved for a longer period of time, and will continue to do their job effectively whilst keep your skin protected. However, if it doesn't look right or smell right after a while, please discard the product.

St Derma News Update

Re current affair report. Our products contain much important anti-aging ingredients with reasonable price compare to high marketing brands and can be used on both face and hands. However, due to the fact of recent research reports on sunscreen containing nano particles and minerals, we do not support and want to have such ingredients to be added into our products. Therefore, until we have found or research has proven otherwise, we leave the consumer to choose their own UV protection product l, if required, on top of our creams. This way, we can provide more confidence with our products to our customers.

This is why and how St Derma seeking and proven to protect our customers, best interest on their skin

photo editing services

New Zealand's country roads become blocked by flocks of herded sheep. From Australia to Armenia, shearing season offers the photographer a chance to cover farm workers in their manic and distorted ballet of wool and sharp blades. Focusing on the efforts of a single worker and/or animal will often yield better results than trying to capture the whole scene, especially when the work takes place inside a dimly lit shed. It's easier to control light in a confined or tight environment than a vast one.

Lunch breaks photography

Come lunchtime, people pour out onto the streets. Smokers congregate in their exclusion zones, others seek solitude on the same end of the same bench in the same park eating the same sandwiches every day for 20 years. In the summer, parks in central London fill with ofiice workers seeking a quick tan. In Mumbai there's a thriving business of tiflin deliverers who pick up lunch boxes from the homes of doting wives, deliver them to the correct husband/ofiice and collect and return the emptied tins afterwards.

Factories and workshops photograhy

Afternoons can get a little hot and drab for street shooting, so seeking access into an oflice or work- space will expand your horizons. Artisans are people with a passion for their work, and photograph- ing people engrossed in their creative process inevitably makes your work more imaginative, too. Try shooting an artisan as you would do a portrait. It’s not so much a matter of fancy effects or distorted angles, but more a careful study of concentration and practised repetition. The good thing is that, be your subject a Bengali mud cup potter, a Cuban cigar maker or a coppersmith in Aleppo, the nature of much craftwork is repetitive, allowing you to perfect angles and lighting in a few test cycles before the final cut. A professional photographer will use photo editing services to enhance his or her work.

the Venetian glassblowers on Murano Island work their rainbow coloured creations over open flame, which adds warm tones and atmosphere to an otherwise cold setting. Light streaming through high windows in a dusty factory becomes angular sheets illuminating individual cigar rollers or coppersmiths; think in terms of size and scale. When photographing weavers at their loom — like in the cottage industries of northern Laos - try shooting through the parallel lines of thread, focusing beyond them on the artisan at work. Some off-camera flash, using a snoot extension tube to light just the worker, will leave the rest of the scene realistically dull but now imbued with an element of hidden mystery. Thankfully, not all workplaces are drab and underlit. The fantasy coflin makers of Ghana often make and display their creations on the street. These final resting containers are carved as elaborate fish or elephants. Some caskets honour the life and career of the deceased (a giant shoe for the cobbler), their aspirations (customised Benz limousines) or —- perhaps the reason why they made it into an early grave — the beer and liquor bottle designs. A shot of the artisan lying inside one of his creations, for example, may work well.

A charterd aircraft, fixed-wing or (even better) a helicopter, comes close to photographer heaven. It is expensive, but the cost varies from country to country, and also depends on the location. The United States, for example, has a higher percentage of private aircraft than anywhere else, and close to National Parks there are likely to be aircraft with pilots used to doing short pleasure rides. The very first thing, which may decide your choice of aircraft and even if it is worth flying at all, is that you must be able to heave either your passenger window open or have the door taken off pre- flight. Photographing through plastic seriously reduces image quality. Not all pilots appreciate this, and not all are willing to open your side of the aircraft in flight, so check this point before anything else.

To make maximum use of expensive flying time, know in advance what subjects you are looking for and what kinds of image you will take; discuss these with the pilot, preferably over a map, as he or she will have to file a flight plan.

Instead of hiring helicopters, you may use drones for aerial photography, which gains popularity these days.

For more photography tips, please visit quick retouch.

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